Spina Bifida Nedir? | Spina Bifida Belirtileri ve Fizik Tedavisi

Spina bifida, bebeklerin doğum öncesi döneminde omurgalarının düzgün şekilde kaplanmaması sonucu oluşan bir doğum kusurudur. Bu durum, sinir sistemini ve omuriliğin normal işlevlerini etkileyebilir. Spina bifida belirtileri arasında zayıf kas tonusu, yürüme güçlüğü, mesane ve bağırsak kontrolü problemleri yer almaktadır. Fizik tedavi, spina bifida nedeniyle oluşan fiziksel semptomların hafifletilmesine yardımcı olabilir.

Spina bifida is a condition where there is an opening in the spine due to improper development of the spinal cord and spinal column while in the womb. It is also known as “open spine” and is a type of neural tube defect. The neural tube is the embryonic structure from which the brain and spinal cord develop. Normally, the neural tube closes by the fourth week of pregnancy. However, in spina bifida, it fails to close properly, resulting in abnormalities in the spinal cord and column. The exact cause of spina bifida is not known, but a deficiency of folate in early pregnancy is a significant risk factor.

There are three main types of spina bifida: meningomyelocele, meningocele, and spina bifida occulta. Meningomyelocele is the most severe type and involves the spinal cord protruding through the opening in the spine, creating a sac on the back. Meningocele involves the protrusion of the membranes that cover the spinal cord, but the spinal cord itself is not affected. Spina bifida occulta is the mildest and most common type and involves one or more of the vertebrae not developing properly, but the opening is small and often causes no problems.

Babies with spina bifida can undergo surgery to close the opening in the spine. However, the abnormal development and damage to the spinal cord can cause various problems, such as paralysis or weakness in the legs, loss of bladder and bowel function, and a lack of sensation in the legs and buttocks. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the opening in the spine. Spina bifida can also be associated with hydrocephalus (accumulation of fluid in the brain) and other problems.

The risk of spina bifida can be reduced by ensuring adequate folate intake before and during pregnancy. Women who have spina bifida in their family history, who have had a previous pregnancy affected by spina bifida, or who have diabetes are at higher risk and may require higher doses of folate. Spina bifida can be diagnosed during pregnancy and after birth, and treatment typically involves surgery to close the opening in the spine, followed by rehabilitation and management of any associated complications.

With proper treatment and support, most people with spina bifida can lead productive, independent lives and attend regular schools. However, some may require special education or assistance with daily activities, and regular check-ups are necessary to monitor for potential complications.

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